Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler each formed their political roots during World War I. Mussolini was an ardent socialist as a youth, following in his father's political footsteps. In 1919, he founded the Fascist Party, eventually making himself dictator and holding all the power in Italy. He overextended his forces during World War II and was executed by his own people in 1945. As the leader of Nazi Germany, Hitler’s fascist policies precipitated World War II and led to the genocide known as the Holocaust, which resulted in the deaths of some six million Jews and another five million noncombatants. With defeat on the horizon, Hitler committed suicide with wife Eva Braun in 1945.