The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor decimated the U.S. Navy surface fleet. On the same day, Japanese air forces also attacked American bases in the Philippines and destroyed most of the U.S. aircraft on the ground in the Philippines. The P-40 which was the plane used by the Flying Tigers in China, it became the primary fighter used in the Allies North African campaign. In April 1942, the Doolittle Raid ion Tokyo by B-25’s flown off the Hornet aircraft carrier stunned the Japanese high command. The B-25 was the most used medium bomber in World War ii and was used by pilots from the U.S. Army, Navy and Marine Corps and by the British. In Europe the 8th Air Force began operations on July 4, 1942 fling mainly B-17 bombers and the P-47 & P-51 fighter. The 8th Air Force inflicted massive damage to the German war machine through its daylight bombing campaigns.