The United States faced a mammoth job in December 1941. Ill-equipped and wounded, the nation was at war with three formidable adversaries. It had to prepare to fight on two distant and very different fronts, Europe and the Pacific. President Roosevelt launched a limited preparedness campaign that would require contributions from all Americans, young and old, men and women. Twenty years of military neglect and indifference was quite a challenge for the American government and was responsible for much of the U.S Army’s lack of success early in the war. Meeting these challenges would require massive government spending, conversion of existing industries to wartime production, construction of huge new factories, changes in consumption, and restrictions on many aspects of American life. President Roosevelt called this build up movement the "Arsenal of Democracy." Over nine million soldiers would be needed to ensure victory for the Allies, so the U.S launched new, more realistic training for combat, where civilians became soldiers.