George Catlett Marshall, Jr. was an American soldier and statesman famous for his leadership roles during WWII and the Cold War. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army and was promoted to General of the Army – five star rank – in 1944. Post war he was Secretary of State and the third Secretary of Defense. He was hailed as the "organizer of victory" by Winston Churchill for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II. Marshall's name was given to the Marshall Plan which was aimed at the economic recovery of Western Europe after World War II. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953 for the Plan. Marshall also served as Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense.