Operation Iraqi Freedom began in March 2003 with the initial phase constructed around the military doctrine of rapid dominance that includes the concept of imposing a level of Shock and Awe against an adversary. Coalition ground forces and air forces unleashed the initial attacks based on Shock and Awe. Initial large scale air operations against Iraq began on March 21st with Coalition Air Forces flying over 1,700 sorties in one day. Combat aircraft came from the United States (Air Force, Navy, and Marine pilots) and the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia delivering mostly guided munitions. In all, during the air phase, over 41,000 sorties were flown by Coalition Air Forces.